PUBLICACIONES

  • Ferro-Azcona H, Espinoza-Tenorio A, Calderón-Contreras R, Ramenzoni VC, Gómez-País MM y MA Mesa-Jurado (2019). Adaptive capacity and social-ecological resilience of coastal areas: A systematic review. Ocean and Costal Management, 173:36-51. DOI: /10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.01.005.

ABSTRACT

Establishing protected areas constitutes one of the main strategies for the conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems. Increasing risks associated with environmental change along with highly degraded coastal ecosystems encompass complex management challenges for the long-term sustainability of these landscapes. This article aims to explore the role of protected areas in past and ongoing community adaptation to the compounded effects of climatic and anthropogenic change. A literature review of published articles is conducted through systematic queries of the bibliographic database Web of Sciences, and by comparing adaptation and social- ecological resilience processes within and out of coastal protected areas. Findings underscore the absence of specific studies that target these topics inside protected areas, highlighting a geographic bias towards research largely carried out in developed countries. Results also indicate the current need for management practices within protected areas to adopt more participatory, comprehensive, and flexible approaches. Protected areas not only promote the conservation and provision of ecosystem services but are also key in building coastal com- munities' adaptive capacity and resilience in face of future scenarios.

  • Julia Martin-Ortega, Mesa-Jurado, M.A., Paula Novo, Mariana Pineda-Vazquez. 2019. Nature commodification: ‘a necessary evil’? An analysis of the views of environmental professionals on ecosystem services-based approaches. Ecosystem Services. 37. 10.1016/j.ecoser.2019.10092611

ABSTRACT

Ecosystem services (ES) has established itself as the predominant paradigm for framing environmental research and policy-making. Its rapid popularisation is raising concerns about the possibility that it might lead to nature commodification. These concerns have been associated with a broader agenda for the neoliberalization of conservation, but research on this area remains mostly theoretical. This paper advances the debate with an empirical study on the views of environmental professionals. The views of those who shape interpretation, uptake and implementation environmental practice are of critical importance since they give the real mark on whether any fundamental change in the current direction of environmental governance is to be expected. Using Mexico as an exemplar case of a country in which ES have clearly entered the environmental discourse provides a forewarning of what might happen more broadly. Results indicate that, while acknowledging risks of commodification, environmental professionals consider a greater risk ‘missing out’ on opportunities to internalize ES monetary values in an economic growth-oriented context. They seem to see negative side-effects as ‘necessary evils’ to achieve conservation targets. Any substantial change in environmental governance is more likely to occur due to the disenchantment produced by the lack of impact of ES-based approaches in practice than of fears of commodification.

  • Jesse Abrams, Erin C. Pischke, Mesa-Jurado, M.A., Amarella Eastmond, Chelsea A. Silva, Cassandra Moseley. 2019. Between Environmental Change and Neoliberalism: The Effects of Oil Palm Production on Livelihood Resilience. Society and Natural Resources. an International Journal. 32. 10.1080/08941920.2018.1544678548-565

ABSTRACT

Rural communities worldwide are increasingly confronted with the simultaneous impacts of environmental change dynamics and processes of economic restructuring that diminish traditional sources of state support while shifting investments toward large-scale intensive production models. A key question in this context is how livelihoods are affected by these interacting forces of change and whether new production models can contribute to resilience at the household and community scales. Here we examine the impacts of oil palm production on marginal rural communities in Mexico that have experienced both the economic changes associated with neoliberal policy reforms and the dynamics of environmental change. We find that oil palm production can contribute to livelihood resilience when community members participate in its management and governance and when production is associated with state support, but that the kinds of neoliberal policies promoting oil palm expansion may exacerbate existing community vulnerabilities in the face of environmental change.

  • Pischke, E.C., Mesa-Jurado, M.A., Eastmond, A., Abrams, J., Halvorsen, K.E. 2018. Community perceptions of socioecological stressors and risk-reducing strategies in Tabasco, Mexico. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. 8. DOI:10.1007/s13412-018-0493-6.

ABSTRACT

Rural inhabitants in many parts of the world face multiple stressors associated with socioecological and climatic change, yet their risk-reducing strategies have rarely been linked to these stressors. Extant studies present unclear and often unspecific definitions of adaptation or focus on just one type of stressor rather than acknowledging that there can be multiple responses to myriad stressors. In an attempt to overcome some of these gaps, we utilize a typology of adaptation strategies that addresses deficiencies in the current adaptation literature. This research draws on qualitative interview data to examine resident perceptions of water-related socioecological and climatic changes and potential risk-reducing strategies within small rural communities in Tabasco, Mexico. The increased frequency of drought and flooding in low-lying areas near the Usumacinta River has reduced local community members’ ability to sustain their livelihoods. Results from interview analysis show that residents are using four major strategies that they perceive as helping them respond to water-related problems. They are mobility, diversification, communal pooling, and environmental management. Our findings contribute to understandings of rural community risk reduction strategies that may be shared by other rural communities in places around the world experiencing negative climate change impacts.

  • Mendoza-Carranza M, Arévalo-Frías W, Espinoza-Tenorio A, et al. (2018). La importancia y diversidad de los recursos pesqueros del río Usumacinta, México. Revista Mexicana de la Biodiversidad, 89 (Suplem. 2018): S131 - S146. DOI:10.22201/ib.20078706e.2018.4.2182.

ABSTRACT

La cuenca del Usumacinta es uno de los principales sistemas hidrológicos de México, posee una alta diversidadde flora y fauna, y constituye el último río vivo en el país, por consiguiente la generación de información que ayude a su aprovechamiento sustentable es urgente. El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar la diversidad de especies asociada a la pesca en la cuenca del Usumacinta, haciendo énfasis en la importancia de las especies introducidas en relación a la diversidad de especies explotadas. La cuenca fue dividida en 3 regiones (selva, lagunas y costa). En toda la cuenca, la pesca de pequeña escala explota 35 especies (30 especies de peces y 5 de crustáceos). La mojarra pinta (Parachromis managuensis), la tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), el bobo escama (Ctenopharyngodon idella), la carpa común (Cyprinus carpio), la carpa roja (Carassius auratus) y los plecos (Pterygoplichthys spp.) son especies introducidas, representando 20.7% del total. En la zona selva, las especies introducidas alcanzaron altas tasas de captura, siendo las carpas las más capturadas. A pesar de que estas especies son parte fundamental de las pesquerías del Usumacinta, sus efectos sobre el ecosistema deben ser analizados, especialmente especies con altas abundancias y nula importancia comercial como los plecos.

  • Mojica-Vélez JM, Barrasa-García S y A Espinoza-Tenorio (2018). Policies in coastal wetlands: key challenges. Environmental Science & Policy, 88:72-82. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsci.2018.06.016.

ABSTRACT

The role of public policies in protecting coastal wetlands is gaining in prominence. The goal of this paper is to review the research themes and the key challenges of coastal wetlands policies. We found 259 papers that cover five research themes: development and impacts, territory, local population, governance, and management. Half of the papers are study cases from North America, and South and Southeast Asia. Regional patterns show that researchers in North America and West Europe focus on the themes of governance and management, while scientists in Latin America, Asia and Africa concentrate their efforts on development and impacts and local population. The paper concludes that development policies are affecting coastal wetlands by promoting or al- lowing urban and economic activities to grow out of control; territorial planning is mismatched with ecological dynamics and influenced by economic interests; the government must build adaptation and a collaborative, multilevel, and decentralized system to achieve the integration of local population in decision-making. Adaptation in the governance improves conservation, restoration, mitigation and compensation, which are significant factors considering the disastrous effects of climate change.

  • Ramiro-Torres VJ, Infante-Mata D, Sánchez AJ, Espinoza-Tenorio A, E Barba M. (2018). Degradación de hojarasca y aporte de nutrientes del manglar in situ, en la Laguna Mecoacán, Golfo de México, Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 892-907.

 

ABSTRACT

Mangroves are ecosystems with a high primary productivity that is mainly driven mainly by degrada- tion processes. Energy (nutrients) flows from mangroves toward adjacent zones and the surrounding aquatic environment. The objective of the present study was to estimate the daily degradation coefficient (k) of man- grove leaves in relation to physical-chemical soil factors and in situ nutrient supply (phosphorus and nitrogen) in Mecoacán Lagoon, Gulf of Mexico. Leaf litter degradation bags were placed at six monthly monitoring sites to evaluate degradation and to calculate the corresponding degradation coefficients. A rapid degradation of up to 51 % was observed for Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn during the first month in association with leaching resulting from flood conditions. The degradation of Rhizophora mangle (L.) (k= 0.0052±0.0002) (F= 12.2 p< 0.05 n= 216) and Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn (k= 0.005±0.0003) (F= 3.7 p= 0.2 n= 108), differed significantly from that of A. germinans (k= 0.009 ± 0.0003) (F= 1.2 p= 0.2 n= 216) did not present significant differences. To reach T50 degradation, R. mangle and L. racemosa required more time (133 and 138 days, respectively) than A. germinans (74 days). Organic matter and soil humidity were significantly correlated with the decay constant of A. germinans (r= 0.65 p< 0.05 and r= 0.55 p< 0.05, respectively). Total nitrogen content was highest in the Pajaral site (2 683 mg.kg) and was also highly correlated with organic matter content (r= 0.9 p= 0.003). Total phosphorus content was highest in the Boca site (2 031 mg.kg) and was also negatively correlated with pH (r= -0.61 p= 0.004). In conclusion, differences in the rate of mangrove leaf degradation depend on the involved spe- cies (leaf composition), time of exposure or immersion in water (flooding patterns) and sediment heterogeneity (i.e., texture, pH, humidity content and bulk density). Rev.

  • Ayer A, Fulton S, Caamal-Madrigal JA y A. Espinoza-Tenorio (2018). Halfway to Sustainability: management lessons from community-based, marine no-take-zones in the Mexican Caribbean. Marine Policy, 93:22-30, DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2018.03.008.

ABSTRACT

Spatial closure regimes such as marine protected areas (MPAs) have emerged as a prominent tool in the effort to balance ecosystem health and fishery productivity. As MPAs have proliferated, the conservation community has begun to supplement traditional biological metrics with social and community considerations in the way it seeks to manage and evaluate such tools. To assess management outcomes and opportunities for a network of com- munity-based, marine no-take zones (NTZs) in the Mexican Caribbean, semi-structured interviews were carried out with fishers and key management stakeholders. Findings indicate that the community-based management strategy has inherent tradeoffs between community engagement and conservation potential. Managers have succeeded in fostering high levels of community support for the initiative, but significant challenges remain, most notably the high presence of illegal fishing within NTZs. Successes and challenges of the community-based management strategy are documented and evaluated within a fisheries resource management framework. As the NTZ network undergoes legal renovation following the completion of its initial five-year term, this work serves as an important resource for both reflection on, and adaptation of, the community-based NTZ management regime.

  • Ramiro-Torres VJ, Infante-Mata D, Sánchez AJ, Espinoza-Tenorio A y E Barba-Macías (2017) Atributos estructurales, productividad (hojarasca) y fenología del manglar en la Laguna Mecoacán, Golfo de México. Revista de Biología Tropical, 65(4): 1592-1608.

ABSTRACT

Mangrove forests are distributed along the topographical gradients of coastal areas, where variations in salinity and flooding influence the composition and primary production of these forests. This study evaluated the structural attributes and production of leaf litter of mangrove species in Mecoacán Lagoon. We established six monitoring sites and studied the floristic composition, diameter at breast height (DBH), and density of adult, juvenile and recruited trees, as well as seedling density; additionally, the basal area, importance value index (IVI), and coverage were also calculated. Monthly samples (from November 2014 to October 2015) of the leaf litter production of different mangrove species, were collected using litter traps, and the physical- chemical parameters of surface, interstitial, and subterranean water were determined using piezometers. The study sites were classified into two physiognomic types: fringe (Boca, Aspoquero, Arrastradero, and Pajaral) and basin (Cerros and Mojarrero). The average density of mangrove trees was 2 870 trees. ha-1. The highest basal area was found in Pajaral (41.7 m2. ha-1). Avicennia germinans presented the highest IVI value in all sites. An average coverage of 17.5 m2 was recorded. The species were zoned with respect to interstitial salinity levels. A. germinans had a greater density in areas with high salinity (hypersaline) and Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle in areas of lower salinity. The leaf litter production was 5.15 ton. ha-1. year-1 and showed a positive correlation with rainfall and a highly negative correlation with salinity level as well as with interstitial and subterranean oxidation redox potential (ORP). The results indicated that variability in the composition, structure, and production of leaf litter in Laguna Mecoacán is locally determined by the species capacity to adapt to environmental conditions (rainfall, salinity, redox potential). Several recommendations include the establish- ment of the sites evaluated in this study, as permanent monitoring areas and to estimate the above and below- ground biomass, in order to understand the nutrient dynamics, as mangroves provide sources of energy both in situ and that may be exported to neighboring areas.

  • de la Rosa-Velázquez MI, Espinoza-Tenorio A, et al (2017), Development stressors are stronger than protected area management, a case of the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Land Use Policy, 67: 340-351. DOI:10.1016/j.landusepol.2017.06.009

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of the management effectiveness of protected areas has become a global priority, especially in coastal zones, where essential services are threatened by land use pressures. To assess the effectiveness of a coastal protected area, we estimated the land-use change (LUC) within and outside of the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve (PCBR) and interviewed key stakeholders to identify the main stressors causing LUC. The native vegetation cover under the PCBR protection decreased by 65% over 24 years; whereas agriculture and livestock lands doubled, even within the core conservation areas of the PCBR. The greatest loss was in the flooded forest (48%), where the reduction was similar in and around the reserve. The effectiveness of reserve management was affected by drivers of land use change, which include agricultural and livestock enterprises that are run by government programs. Effective management of the PCBR has been undermined by poor management practices, limited capacity and resources, and inadequate zoning design. Protected areas and its surrounding landscapes could be considered to be natural experiments for future research, where high value land uses and conservation
objectives coincide within coastal areas that will face a predicted sea level rise, more intense floods and higher temperatures.

ABSTRACT

Evaluation of the management effectiveness of protected areas has become a global priority, especially in coastal zones, where essential services are threatened by land use pressures. To assess the effectiveness of a coastal protected area, we estimated the land-use change (LUC) within and outside of the Pantanos de Centla Biosphere Reserve (PCBR) and interviewed key stakeholders to identify the main stressors causing LUC. The native vegetation cover under the PCBR protection decreased by 65% over 24 years; whereas agriculture and livestock lands doubled, even within the core conservation areas of the PCBR. The greatest loss was in the flooded forest (48%), where the reduction was similar in and around the reserve. The effectiveness of reserve management was affected by drivers of land use change, which include agricultural and livestock enterprises that are run by government programs. Effective management of the PCBR has been undermined by poor management practices, limited capacity and resources, and inadequate zoning design. Protected areas and its surrounding landscapes could be considered to be natural experiments for future research, where high value land uses and conservation
objectives coincide within coastal areas that will face a predicted sea level rise, more intense floods and higher temperatures.

  • Espinoza-Tenorio A, Mesa-Jurado MA, Ortega-Argueta A, M. Hernández (2017). Laboratorios para la sustentabilidad: nuevos espacios para el quehacer científico y la formación de recursos humanos. Nota científica. Revista del Colegio de San Luis, Nota científica. 13 (enero-junio): 184–201.

ABSTRACT

La relación entre ciencia y sociedad está en constante evolución debido a los continuos desafíos que implica el desarrollo de la humanidad. Ante los procesos de deterioro ambiental global, se ha incrementado la presión social sobre aquella parte de la academia comprometida con la creación de conocimiento teórico y práctico que respalde el manejo sostenible de los recursos naturales y un desarrollo acorde. En este contexto, durante la década de los noventas emergen nuevas disciplinas científicas con una visión sistémica, sintética y humanística, cuyo desarrollo requiere de novedosas capacidades humanas y logísticas. Así es como surgen espacios académicos especializados que cuentan con los medios necesarios para favorecer la formulación de propuestas y soluciones que atiendan los retos de la sustentabilidad. El objetivo de este trabajo es poner en relieve la importancia de los laboratorios para la sustentabilidad para el quehacer científico actual y sus capacidades para favorecer un mayor acercamiento entre la ciencia y la sociedad.

  • López-Morales, C., Mesa-Jurado, M.A. 2017. Valuation of Hidden Water Ecosystem Services: The Replacement Cost of the Aquifer System in Central Mexico. Water. 9 (8). DOI:10.3390/w9080571

ABSTRACT

This paper reports research estimating the costs of replacing the groundwater that the metropolitan areas of Mexico City, Toluca, and Cuernavaca, in Central Mexico, pump from 10 over-exploited aquifers with 6 supply alternatives of surface water. These aquifers provide about 70% of the water required by more than 28 million people, and their recharge zones in forested areas are increasingly threatened by economic activities. By designing a constrained optimization program that minimizes investment and operation costs, we found that replacing groundwater extraction involves the construction of all six alternatives at an estimated cost of US$25 billion at present values (US$0.6 m-3 over a 26-year period). We designed and analyzed a scenario to combine measures to reduce water leaks in Mexico City